Russian supercomputers software
In this paper we describe most significant supercomputer models in Russia. Our main goal is to observe tendencies in software building and the parallelism level. We take into account BESM-6 as the first Russian supercomputer with highly-developed software. Operational systems “Dispetcher-68”, “OS IPM” and “Dubna”. Russian supercomputer industry is special because of low number of the different supercomputer models. Counter tendencies in the United States influenced first automatic parallelization systems to develop. Russian scientists aimed to develop more parallel libraries and numeric methods to obtain more precise results, by the time US scientists improve supercomputing hardware.
Russian supercomputers had an individual parallel languages and no common one. PS-3000 as an example of parallel “Pascal” and “Fortran” extensions. Different extensions “Fortran P” – for parallel processes interaction implementation and “Fortran V” – for vector extentions.
Software was provided with the computer model by the institute. Portation problem was the result of software exclusivity. In Elbrus project this problem was particularly solved by adding special processor to the complex. This processor supports BESM-6 commands.
Similar idea was provided later by Elbrus-2000 developers. They advise binary re-compilation of the x86 programs to be run on the new Russian VLIW supercomputer Elbrus. Reasons of failure in this field.
Russian attempt to create supercomputer “Elektronika SSBIS” with similar commands to Cray-1. Thus was made to use Cray software, but this attempt was also failed.
Now Russian scientists have good abilities in supercomputer software development.