English Version –ůŮŮÍŗˇ ‚ŚūŮŤˇ

Khetagurov Yaroslav
Ő»‘», chief@pcweek.ru

Some questions on the philosophy of computer means development

More than half a century computer means, which are represented by two-unity of computers and programming, are being developed in the world.

†††For this period some fantastic results in the creation of computers (machines) and development of programming have been achieved.

†††Computing means have received a very broad use in various areas of our life.

†††Experience in the development of computer means enables to analyze the accepted and made decisions and to consider using estimations and their rationality.

†††It is considered, that the estimation of the decision rationality in many respects is defined by the conditions of the development and the purposes pursued by the application of computer means.

†††Let's consider the connection between †the purpose of application and conditions of computer development.

†††At the initial stage of the development the spheres of computer meansí application were limited to only scientific or mainly†military purposes and had rather simple estimations of rationality of ways of their decision. Only two main†††factors were considered: time of the decision receiving and the expense. The introduction of computer means in various areas of a modern society essentially expanded,†complicated and increased requirements to them and to estimations of rationality of their application.

†††The history of the computer development showed, that the task to increase the volumes of manufacture of computer facilities†appeared to be more simple to solve, than to maintenance the areas with programs of the task solving.

†††This circumstance had†seriously influenced computer development. It began to†improve in a direction of increasing of the basic characteristics of computing means - computers (speed and memory sizes) and productivity of programming (languages of a high level).

†††For computers †the increase in speed and memory sizes was mainly provided with technological means by reduction of the elementsísizes†that increased frequency of their work and reduced the sizes of the device, and also by increasing the number of parallel working computers.

†††Increase of programming productivity†was provided with the wide use of languages of a high level, which considere the†features of the problem decision†in various spheres of computer means application. The use of languages of a high level essentially raised the productivity of tasks programming, but the transformation of the program in language of a high level into the program of computer work (into the program on computer language
ŐŖ) led to the substantial growth of its volume.

††††Summarizing the given data, it is possible to estimate the development of computer means as extensive and, †accordingto such estimation,†to define its role in economic development of the society.

†The extensive development of the computer means†brightly revealed a positive feedback of two parts of computer means - computers and programming.

†††So the increase in volume of programs reveals the problems of increase in monputersí †productivity, and their improvement gives an opportunity to increase the amount of software. Thus these two parts create conditions for each other's development, what helps to preserve the existing parity in distribution and development of works and precise economic interest of representatives.

††As a result, the extensive development of computer means negatively influences on the generation and introduction of new ideas in construction of computer means.

††The important problem of the development of computing means is the estimation of the correlation between kinds and numbers of operations in Ŗ¬” and ŐŖ and their choice for construction of computer means.

†††Apparently, it is expedient to conduct the analysis of movement from ŐŖ to Ŗ¬”, assuming hardware fulfillment of each step of this movement. Considering the recognized advantages of programming on Ŗ¬” on†one hand, and achievements in technology of minimization of the elementsí sizes†on a crystal on the other hand, and also the development of —ņŌ–ŗ, practically created the conditions for construction of complex schemes of Ŗ¬” operation.

However, relying on publications, this direction of
¬— didn't receive its development apparently because of the corporative reasons as, on one hand, the market of software products on ŐŖ†sharply limited, and, on the other hand, the †requirements to the computerís speed essentially changed (the essential reductions of quantity of commands on ŐŖ).

It is necessary to note, the application of ¬— with hardware realization Ŗ¬” essentially reduces expenses of the firms creating systems with computers as on programming and debugging of programs and all system, and for operation, but these are problems of other group of firms.

The next important problem of the BC development is the estimation of universality of created computers, meaning an opportunity to effectively conduct calculations for a wide range of problems

†For overwhelming number of users ¬— (more than 80 %) and especially for ¬—, working in various areas, the main thing is the†minimization of expenses for operation. It can be reached in two ways:

a)†††† Usage of universal computers and wide application of the developed typical programs;

b)††† Application of the specialized computers effectively solving certain groups of problems and using most convenient Ŗ¬”.

The modern level of the development of manufacturing techniques of computers, usag e of —ņŌ–, creation of basic technical decisions (base crystals for microprocessors, controllers) change the estimations of expediency of application to the side of specialized decisions.

Existing distribution of industrial and economic resources of leading manufacturers †of ¬— is much interested in the universal ¬— as they provide extensive development of both the certain profit level and parity between ¬— parts. Though for the consumers, who use ¬—, it leads to increase in expenses. But in a such way the interaction in the ¬— production is organized. It is one of the important factors, constraining the realization of new ideas.

The problem of the
¬— development, despite the certain achievements, remains the maintenance of the reliability of the given out information. It is well known, that the reliability of the information (absence of mistakes in given out data) is defined by †the quality of†methods, used to control the correctness of computerís work†and of the carried out program.

It is necessary to note, that the mportance of the requirements to the reliability of the information is defined by the limited number of BC consumers†(15-20 %), however the damage from the misleading information can reach significant sizes.

To such misleading†information, from the point of view of the consumer, we shall†also apply the influence of viruses and various bookmarks, which do milliard damages.

Let's consider some features of viruses occurance which break the order of performance of the problem solving programs. It is necessary to note, that the occurrence of viruses in the program is not connected with infringement of work of the computer equipment, taken measures on elimination of the virusís nfluence†are carried out after its detection and influence only†this virus. To predict the occurrence of a virus , relying on the published data,†is not yet possible.

Analyzing programs of viruses, it is possible to note, that†the commands connected with transformation of addresses and changes of data are widely usedin them. Possible number of combinations of similar commands in programs is practically beyond all bounds.

Therefore, to avoid the influence of viruses, some changes of the organization of a computer work and of the conditions of the programs formation†are necessary to be made. Therefore, the existing operating procedure of
¬—†will be broken from time to time by occurrence of the next virus which influence can be eliminated by the creation of the next anti-virus program. It is connected with additional expenses of the user and increase in volume of the program and also of requirements to speed.

The existing extensive order of the BC development, definied†mainly by economic attitudes between the leading companies of the world can change only in the †result of occurrences of new conditions and needs in the society.

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