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In 1968 S. A. Lebedev after some hot discussions with the staff of ITMandVT accepted the offer to develop the specialized operating small-sized mobile highly-efficient digital computer complex (DCC) 5E26 for application in rocket systems antiaircraft defenses (air defense). The general designer of systems of air defense was Boris V. Bunkin.
Sergey Alekseevich dreamed of the realization of such opportunity in 1950 in Kiev after creation of MESM.
Certainly, this work had changed the structure of Institute as the developer of stationary universal computes and caused the derivation of some employees to its performance. But it was necessary to consider, that the research staff of the Institute during the creation of the computer of the second generation was fulfilling technical solutions important for special machines:
In 5E92á and 5E51:
- the hardware control of serviceability of devices,
- means for creation of multi machine complexes with automatic transition to a reserve,
- the special processor of management external devices,
- the developed of engineering system maintaining steady functioning (regarding power supplies and cooling)
- experience of input and operation of these computers was studied on many different objects of systems of strategic purpose and in computer centers
In 5Ý65 and 5Ý67:
- mobility of computing systems for work in heavy conditions of operation.
- the three-machine computer complex 5Ý67 with the general field of external memory which is still being used in the Far North. (The assistant of the head designer VK 5E67 Igor Konstantinovich Hailov was awarded the National Award of the USSR for creation 5E67
Except for that there was an opportunity to get some significant financial assets that allowed to expand front of works on the third generation computer creation with attraction of technological capacities of factories was.
After some organizational, scientific and technical problems connected with the development of works on 5E26 were solved, from the beginning 1969 the director of Institute Sergey Adekseevich Lebedev lead the reorganization, which was the largest in the whole history of ITMandVT. The resources of different isolated laboratories were incorporated under the direction of six head laboratories (branches) - on the computer of a general purpose, on the computer of special purpose, (including architecture), on electronic designing, memories, SAPR and technologies.
DCC 5E26 was created by young (on the average 30-years), but already skilled experts. They were working much and tensely, being pleased with importance of the business entrusted by it and novelty of solved problems. The success of a common cause was served also with friendly and confidential attitudes between experts of different structures. The head designer of DCC 5E26 S. A. Lebedev, the assistant of the head designer V. S. Burtsev headed other developers. The basic group consisted of: E.A. Krivosheev, P. V. Borisov, K. J. Tregubov, J. D. Ostretsov , V.N. Layt, L.A. Kozlov, D.B. Podshivalov, G.G. Rjabov, O. K. Gushchin, A.A. Novikov, J.S. Rjabtsev, V.I. Stepanov.
Multiprocessing architecture of DCC 5E26, ensuring the functioning up to three modules of the central processors (CPU) and two special processors of input-output of the information (PIO) with the general memory, which consists of modules (blocks) of command independent memory and modules of operative memory of data, was established. Each CPU had memory of CACHE data. In DCC a big number of external interruptions could act. Modules TSVK are captured by the full hardware control of serviceability. On signals of the hardware control the automatic reconfiguration of DCC is carried out and as a result of it only serviceable modules are kept in work. The transition from one working configuration of DCC to another takes all no more than 17 milliseconds.
Structurally DCC represents a case (height 1885, width 2870, depth 655, all the sizes long in mm; power consumption of 5,5 Kw.) which is put at a wall of in a vehicle (a van or similar), with racks-sections available in a case. Each of them contains 7 one-storied places of demountable blocks. Operating of DCC is carried out when one approaches the case from the one side, repair works are made by replacement of blocks. Three sizes on blocks height (1,2 and 3-storeyed) are used. Reservation in DCC is carried out by groups (modules of reservation), having 1-3 blocks.
One floor of the block contains up to 28 cell-typical elements of replacement, has a skeleton with the unifying panel from two multi layers printed-circuit-boards MPP-2. The cell includes six-layer printed-circuit-board MPP-1 in the size 170*110ìì, on which two surfaces cases of integrated schemes are mounted (up to 70 pieces), on one part a demountable connector with the unifying panel of the block is placed , and on opposite party of MPP-1 there is a special handle with contacts for control points and signals of indication.
As integrated schemes semi-conductor microcircuits of one of the first domestic series-133 and 130 (TTL-Type) were basically used.
Important features of ÌPP DCC 5E26 were:
The presence in plats, except for through, also "deaf" (internal) metallized apertures for interlaminar transitions;
The presence of special layers of "ground" and "feed" with the big areas of type distributing conductors;
Greater (for the end of 60th) area of ÌPP (8-milayer ÌP-2 were of the size 280*220mm.).
Specified features of ÌPP DCC 5E26, which were for many years inaccessible to designers of other products, provided high speed and the compactness of the equipment caused in the big density of communications at demanded noise immunity, and also high adaptability to manufacture-suitability to the automated manufacture, as the overwhelming majority of communications in serial samples should have been printed.
For designing and the automated manufacturing of cells, panels and blocks of the machine 5E26 (which was the first computer of the third generation in ITM and VT and at factories) it was required to develop and master in manufacture a set of new processes, materials and equipment, to organize a number of special sites and shops, to retrain engineers and òåõíèêîâ, technologists and production workers. For the first time there were created:
- System of the automated designing on the computer cells, blocks and devices on the basis of IS and ÌPP with release of the complete set of the machine documentation, including operating programs for industrial-technological installations;
- Technological base, industrial sites of automated manufacturing of ÌPP with the through and internal metallized transitions, including new materials (thin folding "poisoned" dielectric, dry film photoresist, special films and many other things);
- The special equipment (coordinatographs, drilling machines, lines of chemistry-galvanic coverings, press, etc.);
- The instrumentation for quality check of printed circuit wiring and metallization, stability of ÌPP to a various sort to influences and etc
- Technological processes, instructions, techniques;
- Sites with special engineering maintenance (clearing constructions);
- A technique, the equipment for installation of cells and blocks, their completions and repair;
- A technique, special stands and equipment for adjustment, control and conduction of various tests for cells, blocks and cases.
The operative memory (OMD) DCC 5E26 was executed on the new ferrite cores developed in ITMandVT, and for maintenance of stability of stores of the RAM to mechanical and climatic influences in field conditions of operation of a matrix from cores were filled in special elastic compound.
Essentially new device of memory developed specially for DCC 5E26 was the memory of commands (MCD), executed on ferrite cores with two biaks-holes. MCD met very rigid requirements to memory of DCC commands:
To provide storage of the information without any consumption of energy;
To be steady against all kinds possible external influences -mechanical, climatic, radiating, electromagnetic;
To have a rather greater capacity;
To provide an opportunity of simple electric rewriting of the information for frequent modification in programs.
In the beginning of the 70th different variant MCD on cores with two apertures was the best technical decision, despite of greater sizes and weight of module MCD, which caused the creation of the special device for installation of the module in a case and its extraction of a case. By development and the organization of MCD manufacture it was required to solve complex technical problems.
In field conditions a lot of attention was given to maintenance of convenient adjustment of the first samples, simplicity of repair and service of DCC. For adjustment and revealing of a place of malfunction (a component, communication, contact, etc.) special technological stand, produced at a factory and operating in repair body in the army, were developed. In these stands, blocks of the working DCC were placed not in a regular case, but in a special carried racks, placed on the area, allowing to have access with the probe instrumentation to elements on the unifying panel of the block and to all contacts of cells. Signals from cells were transferred to the technological board for indication. The restored block passed the full control in structure of technological DCC and then it was transferred as the ZIP in places of DCC operation. The repair of the regular DCC was made by the operator replacement of blocks (with the usage of ZIP) on the basis of signals displayed on a case "Failure" by results of the hardware control and testing.
Special value was given to the maintenance of reliability of performance of the special military missions. Except for structural methods of reservation with automatic reconfiguration at the hardware control of serviceability of modules over reception of demanded parameters of DCC reliability, the diversified actions on increase of "physical" non-failure operation of all DCC formations (components, printed-circuit-boards, cells, blocks, interblock installation, etc.) in all ranges of change of parameters of external influences were carried out. Schemes of DCC were developed with the use of supervising technical materials, which were created in view of all possible factors influencing the reliability of schemes work in all conditions and operating modes of DCC.
The design of DCC was developed by experts of the Zagorsk electromechanical factory (ZEMF) which had experience of creation of the equipment for installation in vehicles and work in field conditions.
Some enterprises of the USSR radio industry participated in works on DCC 5E26, which provided the development of the soviet scientific, technical and industrial base of highly-efficient special computers of the third generation: ITMandVT as the head developer, the Zagorsk electromechanical factory (ZEMF) as the head manufacturer and codeveloper, NPO "Diamond" as the head “complexiter” and the organizer of works on technical base (head designer B. V. Bunkin), NPO "Avantguarde" (on hybrid microcircuits of the storage), Lvov PO as the second factory-supplier of DCC, etc.
Necessary new materials, components, technological processes and the equipment for manufacturing of DCC 5E26 were created at the enterprises of electronic, electrotechnical, chemical, machine and equipment building industries of the USSR.
While DCC was manufactured well-known (including by foreign publications) methods of maintenance of reliability: the control over tests of materials and purchased completing products, ïîîïåðàöèîííûé the control over manufacture, technological tests and trainings of units, devices and a complex as a whole, periodic and debugging tests, etc. were applied
Except for well-known methods of maintenance of reliability of the equipment which the next years became traditional for various products, at the creation of DCC 5E26 some special actions, including tests of parties of microcircuits for revealing of "alternating" refusals and tests of blocks in a mode of change of their temperature were also used. The presence of "Alternating" refusals in microcircuits at which defect is shown some time in the form of short-term self-restored malfunctions and only leads to full refusal later, long time was not admitted by soviet suppliers of microcircuits. It required much time and effort from the head designer of 5E26 S. A. Lebedev and of the research staff of Institute to achieve deliveries of qualitative microcircuits.
While DCC 5E26 was manufactured some stands, on which tests of a complex in the whole on stability to mechanical influences during the problems solving were spent, also were created.
Taken measures to increase reliability of DCC 5E26 and the saved up knowledge had the big practical value as it was the first experience of our country in the field of reliability of special computers of the third generation.
Now more than 1000 copies of DCC 5E26 and their upgradings are widely used.
For the creation of DCC 5E26 E.A. Krivosheev, J.D. Ostretsov, J. S. Ryabtsev were awarded the State premiums of the USSR. Many other developers also received different State awards.
The research staff, mainly consisting from the apprentices of S.A. Lebedev, continued the development of computer facilities to improve the systems of air defense of the head designer B. V. Bunkina in the best traditions of Lebedev’s school.
In 1977 according to the results of factory and state tests, manufactures and operation of DCC 5E26 the decision to develop new models of DCC 5E26 was accepted.
In new models (5E265 and 5E266) it was possible:
- To raise efficiency of the hardware control (HC) both due to some increase in equipment of HC, and by increase in program access to HC;
- To create design of DCC to make it possible to reach with probe the majority of contacts in logic blocks in the included condition;
- To raise the efficiency of reconfigurations by means of completion of the programs providing change of a configuration;
- To improve the indication of DCC condition located on a case for maintenance of repair and debugging of fighting programs.
The architecture of new models remained the same, as well as at 5E26, but it was required to develop anew practically all cells, blocks and case of DCC.
The cells were kept of the same sizes, and the design of printed-circuit-boards was improved.
DCC were issued in two configurations: small (5E262, 5E266) and big (5E261, 5E265) machines. The difference was that the greater machine had not one, and two sections of memory, thus the capacity of command and operative memory was doubled.
DCC 5E265 (6) showed better characteristics of reliability, than 5E261 (2). In this connection requirements on DCC regarding average time of a time between failures (it is increased almost twice) were updated.
Works on 5Ý26 were opened in ITMandVT, and also at several factories the new direction SVT-family of operating digital computer complexes 5E26 – 40U6, which even now remains important.
For the development of air defense system by General designer B.V.Bunkina in 1980 the development of a new computer 40U6 was started. The head designer was E. A. Krivosheev and this model represented program-compatible (at a level of a subset of system of commands) with DCC 5E26 computer complex with higher, than at 5E265, characteristics of productivity, memory capacity (operative and command), throughput of channels of input-output with a wide set of interfaces, with the improved mechanisms of interruptions and systems of "hot" reservation and reconfiguration, with maintenance of data input with the keyboard and a conclusion the express train-information about a course of fighting work on a press.
The structure of TSVK 40u6 includes the following equipment:
5 central processors (C.P.U) - at reservation the military program can set the requirement of any parity of working and reserve C. P. U., or work in a mode of degradation;
2 processors of input-output - reservation 1:1, i.e. one device are in an operating conditions and one reserve;
2 blocks of operative memory - reservation 1:1, thus are provided duplication of the information, a memory size of 256 Kb;
2 blocks of command memory - reservation 1:1, are possible inclusion of both blocks without a reserve with doubling a memory size, a memory size of 512 Kb;
The block of the adapter of channels;
The block of a control panel - is not reserved and blocked at fighting work;
The power supply system, which allows DCC to work from a network of 50 or 400 Hz;
External memory is used for cold loading memory of commands, input of the information, change of versions of fighting programs;
The teletype - manual input of the information and the output data printing.
Each logic device is placed in one block, and all listed equipment - in a case in volume 2,5 cubic meters
Demanded productivity of DCC 40U6 (2,5 million operations a second) is reached due to following architecturally-technical decisions:
Hardware realization of calculations of elementary functions;
Fast local operative memory in each processor;
The simultaneous reference of processors to command and operative memories, stratification of memory;
The organizations of input-output without the reference to the C.P.U.
Exchange of information with system will be organized by means of special PVV. Such decision allows release the C.P.U. from conducting an exchange, except for start-up of channels at start of military programs. In the further VPP independently operates an exchange. VPP has 16 channels, total rate of an exchange - 2 Mb / second.
To maintenance the high parameters of reliability in DCC 40U6 the system of reservation, which is based following principles, is realized:
The system of the hardware control over the organization of automatic reservation and acknowledgement of reliability of results of computing process is applied;
By means of practically full hardware control (HC) devices high efficiency of the control over performance of fighting programs in a fighting mode (tests it is established, that HC covers 97 % of the equipment 40U6) is reached;
The program control in the test mode checks all program-accessible equipment, setting modes of check as for the circuits captured HC, and for the circuits accessible only to the program;
Each functional device has a reserve with its own power unit;
Duplication of the information is entered into reserve operative memory;
Regular configuration of DCC 40U6 for performance of the working program consists of one device of each type and four C.P.U.;
Re-configuration during performance of military programs is held no more than 17 milliseconds;
The initial configuration is formed considering the results of the functional control over all volume of the equipment;
In case of insufficiency of serviceable functional blocks for creation of a regular working configuration or excess of reconfiguration time the signal “refusal DCC” is formed.
Parameters of reliability depend also on the organization of repair. Therefore in system of hardware-software control DCC indication on each cell “avost of its own” and “adjacent avost” is entered. “ avost of its own ” specifies presence of malfunction in the given cell. ”adjacent avost” is increased, when malfunction is on “ the neutral ground ”, i. å. in the equipment located between last level of the control over a cell, where the incorrect information comes from , and the entrance control over the given cell. Any “avost” if the operator needs can block the movement of the information in DCC. It reaches the most exact instruction of area of the equipment in which there was a malfunction.
For DCC 40U6 “The Technique of the directed search of malfunctions” is developed, in which entrance information signals of the control, and the target information points at the necessary following elementary action. For some steps the malfunction, as a rule, is localized to within several cells. Such organization of repair does not demand the personnel of high qualification.
As an element base for DCC 40U6 IS series 530 and 533, 537 RU6 (for command and operative memory), separate IS series 539 and 169, IS 537 RU9À for local operative memory) were chosen. Presence of a storage data mode in IS 537 RU6 at the lowered pressure enabled to keep the command information with switched off feed DCC. It is provided with introduction of the special internal power supply - the storage battery. The capacity of a battery is sufficient for 3 5 years, and with the corresponding additional charge - for all term of DCC operation.
DCC 40U6 was developed when the enterprises of the radio-industry (NPO "Diamond", NPO "Avant guarde", etc.) with participation of many industries of the USSR according to the governmental order started to solve a challenge of all-union value - creation of base for the automatic serial manufacturing of the radio-electronic equipment (REE). Thus it was provided to develop unified constructions, suitable for the automatic manufacture of units and devices of REE to create necessary materials, technological press, equipment, typical sites, departments and factories to organize specialized manufactures and their cooperation. Complexes 40U6 should have become the first large production of the automated manufacture that is why the constructions, developed in NPO "Diamond", were set for them as unified. However, during the development of DCC 40U6 and the organizations of its manufacture in PO "Star" it was required to finish thoroughly the initial project of metallic constructions and to fill it with basic technological decisions on realization of various communications and power supplies. This task was successfully accomplished (under the insisting of the head designer of system of air defense B. V. Bunkina) at close teamwork of experts of ITM and VT, PO "Star" and NPO "Diamond".
The software, delivered with DCC under designation KOP-40U6, contains the control and serving programs used for manufacture and operation.
Control programs include tests of all equipment accessible to the program control: functional blocks, interblock communications, the equipment of the control and management of a configuration, external communications, peripheral devices of controls and indication.
Serving programs make initial loading memory of commands, the whole work connected with configuration of DCC state, defines a state “DCC is in working order” and “DCC is not in working order”, provides operative informational exchange with external devices and use of the duplicated information in memory.
Work of serving programs in DCC configuration is held in conditions of real time, providing the accomplishing of transition to new DCC configuration during the fighting work and continuation of performance of the fighting program no more than through 17ìñ after a malfunction is occurred.
The built in branched out system of the hardware control penetrates all schemes of DCC 5E26 – 40U6 and provides their non-failure operation at work in a mode of real time/ It demands a very short time to react on failures and refusals, and its “ready time” is 15 seconds.
All the formations of DCC families 5E26 – 40U6 - the architecture, element, constructive-technological base and the software are completely domestic. About 1300 copies were produced on the basis of this complex and they lived up to all the requirements to computing means of military complex mobile systems. For these systems there is well fulfilled software, and also means of its support, modernization and development, there are repair bases, the simulators, the saved up technique of operation.
High qualities of DCC 5E26 – 40U6 caused their long life in systems, which for many more years will be on the military supplies of Military Forces of the Russian Federation.
The part of systems with DCC 5E26 – 40U6 was sold to foreign countries and is still in high demand for export.
Problems of maintenance of DCC family 5E26 – 40U6 in operation, their modernizations and development remain very urgent nowadays.
For the creation of DCC 40U6 the head designer E. A. Krivosheev was awarded the State premium, and a number of developers received different State awards.
After well-known events there was a small group of the research staff capable to continue the development of family 5E26 – 40U6.We want to believe, that it will soon be again necessary create Russian computers with domestic architecture and technical base for systems, which on their tactical-technical parameters will not be worse than foreign ones, as it was some years ago.
Chief Scientific Research Organization – 2 ITM and VT of the Russian Academy of Science,
Igor M. Lisovsky.
After the development of models 5E261, 5E262, 5E265, 5E266 was completed in 1978, the state Committee of the USSR on Affairs of Inventions and Discoveries gave out the Copyright certificate 157346 on invention of DCC 5E26 authors:: to V. S. Burtsev , E. A. Krivosheev, P. V. Borisov, J. D. Ostretsov , V. I. Stepanov, E. M. Rumjantsev, K. J. Tregubov, M. F. Fadeev, D. I. Obidin, L. A. Kozlov, A. S. Krylov, J. S. Ryabtsev (the application 2271485, a priority of the invention on January, 10th, 1980).
The State Committee of the USSR on Affairs of Inventions and Discoveries gave out the Copyright certificate 94472 to E. A. Krivosheev, M .F. Fadeev, V. L. Stepanov, D.I. Obidin, O.G. Vajser on the invention of the processor of an exchange for DCC 5E26 according to the description and given formula, under the application 1584552 with a priority from December, 26th, 1974